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As new titanium products, alloys and manufacturing methods are employed by the aerospace industry, the use of titanium will expand. Today the use of precision castings and new alloys such as Ti-15V-3Cr-3AI-3Sn and Ti-3AI-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo are making it possible for titanium to displace alternate, less efficient structural materials in a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.
The exceptional resistance to attack from H2S and other aggressive compounds combined with high strength and low density make titanium especially attractive for downhole applications such as packers, tube strings, stress riser joints, safety valves and springs.
Laboratory and field studies have proven titanium to have exceptional corrosion/erosion resistance to FGD systems. Its long life makes titanium a prime candidate for pollution control systems.
Titanium demonstrates excellent corrosion resistance, not only to various food products and pharmaceutical chemicals, but also to the cleaning agents utilized. As equipment life becomes a more critical factor in financial evaluations, titanium equipment may begin to replace existing stainless steel apparatus.
Nuclear waste must be stored safely for hundreds of thousands of years. Titanium's proven resistance to attack from naturally occurring fluids makes it a prime candidate for multi-barrier disposal systems.
Titanium's unique blend of properties make it a natural choice for various types of commercial uses, including jewelry, roofs, horseshoes, pens, watches, golf club shafts, BMX bikes, tennis racquets, eye glass frames and hand tools.
The optimal erosion/corrosion resistance properties of titanium make it the metal of choice for any fluid flow component. Potential applications include submarine hulls, submarine condensers, ship superstructures, weapons systems, seawater piping systems, exhaust uptakes, vertical launch systems, hangar bay doors, jet blast deflectors and ventilation ducting.
Titanium is becoming a select material as a matrix in the emerging development of metal matrix composites for aerospace as well as industrial applications. While offering a high temperature resistant ductile base, titanium can be further strengthened and stiffened with the addition of ceramic or intermetallic compounds in fiber or particulate form to produce properties beyond those achieved by alloying alone.
Current developments using SiC and TiC reinforcements will permit titanium base composites to replace nickel and steel alloys in higher temperature and higher modulus applications.
This class of materials, typically containing 15-35% AI, represents the next generation of alloys intended to push the applications of titanium beyond the traditional 1000°F. barrier. Two types of aluminides currently are under investigation. The class known as alpha 2 is typified by the Ti3AI intermetallic compound; whereas, the gamma aluminides are represented by the Ti-AI formula. Variations of both types, containing a variety of alloying elements, are being studied to overcome the inherent low ductility of these compounds. Currently, two application areas are the focus of attention. The National Aerospace Plan provides the main impetus for development activity, both for the airframe and the hypersonic engines. The Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology program, paving the way for future generations of aircraft gas turbine engines, will also utilize these materials to achieve their intended performance goals. Thus, the high machnumber aerospace vehicles and propulsion systems designed to usher in the age of hypersonic flight will become a reality with these materials.
Titanium reinforcement rods are being used in the restoration of antiquities such as the Parthenon and to repair concrete bridge structures. In Japan, commercially pure titanium is being used for roofing, window frames, eaves and gables, flashing wall curtains, railings, ventilators, and interior and exterior appendages. In the United States, titanium is bonded to glass for exterior use in buildings.